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This is the bibliography section explaining various terminologies used in the field of SEO (search engine optimization) or related. If you wish to see any particular section related to services or projects of PlaceOnTop.com kindly choose from the top menu or visit the home page and navigate from there.


This Bibliography Section at Place On Top which is built to provide you a basic explanation of all major types of phrases or jargons used in the field of SEO, Search engine optimization and web designing or website development.

The internet is changing rapidly everyday and there are new terminologies coming up every other day. We learnt about Search engine rankings and tomorrow it was some inventor who went one step further to give a complete thesis about the conversion rate optimization and am sure by the time we are through with that, there are more coming up.

Thank God, there is internet! This bibliography section is just a mere step in comparison to the other giant initiatives done by wikipedia and similar websites or organization in building up the net and eventually the internet itself.

We built this section earlier for the SEO for our website, but realized later that it could be a great help for others too. You can get a quick resource and meanings of the various terminologies used in this field. If you are looking for a better, complete, elaborated and accurate information and definitions of the various terminologies of SEO and do not want to hire any SEO company and love do to the hard work yourself, we will help. We suggest that you search it on the wikipedia or google or search single-single term wise on the internet to get the best answers. So what do you get here? Over here, you get the basic explanation of all basic terms used in the field of SEO in the most simplest forms to give you an idea and QUICKLY and roll on to the next!

Click simply on the left menu to find out an explanation of any topic directly.

How to start a website and do effective SEO of the same, please refer the SEO Techniques which gives a few good knowledge and guidance with basics to round up all major techniques and methods you should follow to rank high in Search Engine Ranking Pages (SERP).

Conversion Rate Optimization- CRO

Conversion Rate Optimization is the scientific study, analysis and then implimentation of various optimization methods of the various website elements like design, development, credibility etc on the website plus off page elements too, to increase the rate of conversion of all the unique visitors coming to your website to the number of visitors doing finally what you want them to do or the motive of your website.

After a user lands on your website, how many times does he buy your product or service determines the conversion rate. A Conversion Ratio is the ratio of the users visiting your website who finally do what you want them to do on your website or what your website is intended for TO the total number of unique visitors visiting your website. And to optimize a website or a webpage to increase the conversion rate is conversion rate optimization or CRO.

Say for example if you built up a website for selling a phone. You do web designing and SEO and various other things throw traffic on it. Eventually there are 1000 unique vistors to your website per month. Out of the 1000 unique visitors there are only 10 people who buy a phone from you or throw a genuine query to you. Then the CR of your website is 1% per month.

And by CRO and its various techniques you can increase the CR.

CRO plays an important part in online promotions as the ultimate fruit of the SEO is the conversion of the leads on the website. SEO is the transfering of user from the search engine ranking pages of a SEO website and CRO is to finaly convert that user landing on the website to give a final conversion for the purpose of website.

Though there are many factors to increase the CRO and every factor could make a difference done effectively with precision. A few of them mentioned briefly are :

  1. Simplicity: A simple phenomenon for increasing CRO is to make your website as simple and self explainatory as possible. For the fact if your website is a complex one, the user has more chances of getting confused or get diverted from the main reason of your website. Simplicity could be further attained from a proper web design layout which is not to hosh posh and shows your product or service simply through less text and numbers on it. People love to see more of pictures and less of numbers.
  2. Avoid extra applications/ add ons or advertisements on your website that drive the attention of the user elsewhere that come on your website unless advertisements is the real motive of your website. Pops ups are outdated today and idealy should be complete avoided. If you still wish the website to have come advertisements, keep it to the positions and amounts where they get attention when the customer has made up his mind to not to go for your main purpose of website.
  3. Relevence: Landing up the user of your website on the correct or most relevant page through SEO is very important. If a user lands up on your website from a SERP (Search Engine ranking pages) for what we searched for and does not get what he is looking for, he is bound to leave in no time leading to decrease in conversion rate. Your site should be optimized for the most relavant matter. For the matter what he is searching for you. Moreover if you are selling chololates for example, try making the user land up on the most precise page he is looking for. So he gets what he came for and not necessarily the homepage everytime. If the customer looks for a 'silk skirt', and you have thousand items on your website and the home page sums up all, the customer might as well not find that page relevant and get frustrated and leave. So land him on to a page that has silk skirts.
  4. Geographically targetted SEO: Say for example you are making a website for a service to cater specifically in Delhi, it is better that you SEO your website for that area more to get more relevant audiance of that region.
  5. Credibility: Even if the site is relavant and does not have a credibility, the user does not buy if he thinks he will not get what you are actually showing him. Thus Credibility plays a great role in conversion ration optimization. There are many you can increase the creditibility of your website like adding a phone number and address to make you more authentic and also add certificates from certifying agencies of your field like SSL certificate or the ISO certificate and similar and more. Ask a CRO company in Delhi to help you on that.
  6. Ease of use: All set, the site is relavant and the website has credebility too and the customer also is now interested to buy, but keeps searching for the exact item he is looking for or finds the item and you take him to too many places before the checkout, the customer can get frustrated and leaves your website leading to a decrease in CRO. Keep it simple and easy, not confusing. It is a truth, we donot like much calculation, not too many numbers, so try to keep it simple with numbers and the figures to whatever are necessary, should be shown in the shortest and least number of ways.
  7. Error free drive: All is done, but one of places where some websites fail is the checkout process, either they take the customer through many steps or fill out too many forms where he loses interest or the complete checkout to payment gateway process fails out and you loose the customer just at the end. Hence double check the whole process.
  8. Driving excellence: From the beginning to the end it is the design and development route you take the customer which is very important in order to make a quick conversion of your click to a final lead. Many design factors help you on that like using a contrasting button with background for the one which is the most important and so on.

The work of the organisation finishes once the user lands up on your website, the CRO work starts from there on.


The most important words on the web page which are relevant to the context and are repeated a few times are called as keywords in terms of search engine optimization or with reference to search engines.

What are keywords according to the search engines or Search Engine Optimization (SEO)?

Say for example, there is a web page like this. A web page is comprised of hundreds or thousands of words generally. The words are anything like 'web', 'page', 'words', 'is', 'of', 'thousands' and so on.

Now what the search engines generally do is first remove all the common words like 'is', 'of', 'are' and so on. These are words used to complete a sentence so are not keywords. Then considering the rest, the words which are repeated more number of times on the web page are considered as keywords. They could be single words or even a group of words.

Example on this web page, the word 'keywords' has been used many number of times, hence it is relatively more obvious to be a keyword. Plus there are also a combination of words like 'search engines' and 'Search Engine Optimization' which are used many times bound to be a keyword in terms reference to search engines and SEO.


In addition to this, the search engines also consider the other aspects of a webpage while making it a keyword and the most important amongst those are the meta tags of the web page. The title tag and description meta tag are one of the most important amongst them.

Also there is a special meta tag which itself is dedicated to specify the keywords of the page manually by the web page designer.

Search Engines

Before we write about Search Engines, it will be a good idea to just list a few search engines in the world and that will define the phrase half way through. The various Search Engines in the world are:

  • Google
  • Yahoo
  • Bing (MSN) formerly Live.com
  • Ask Jeeves
  • Alta Vista
  • Lycos
  • Dogpile
  • Conduit

And more..

A search engine is a software generaly put on a website like Google, yahoo and so on which search for a particular word or a phrase across its database for the already sorted web pages in that context in a level of heirarchy.

Hence, if you go to a search engine and search for a phrase 'silk skirt', the search engine will bring in front the various web pages it has sorted in its database in relevence to the word 'silk skirt'.

Different search engines have different ways of collecting data from the internet and displaying in front of the users.

Man has always in search of something, be it a materialistic or tangible thing or a spiritual concept, philosophy or knowledge of something. The Search Engines are just using the power of computers to collect the knowledge scattered around the world in different sources and making it available for eveyone who comes in search of it with the most easiest way and with a few conditions applied.

Search Engine Ranking Pages (SERP)

When you search for a keyword on any search engine like Google, Yahoo, Bing(MSN) etc, the search engine searches accross their database for the various web pages being already sorted for those keywords and puts those results in an order of relevance in hierarchy. The results are sorted across pages in accordance to their relevance. These pages are called are search engine ranking pages or SERP.

Generally all search engines give you 10 results per page by default. And if, for a keyword say "SEO company in Delhi", a website like this i.e. PlaceOnTop.com comes on the 5th result or 1st page on google, it means that it is ranked 10th in SERP.

Meta Tags

Meta tags are the tags for html programing that donot show up on a page upfront, but carry important information about that page at the back end. When you have downloaded a webpage, you can view the source of that page from the menu of the browser window which indeed will show you the coding of that page at the back end to show the page what you are seeing in front.

In the source of the webpage, there are 2 major sections, i.e head and the body. The head is used to store all information about the page generaly that is not intended to show up front, plus the additional code that helps displaying the various elements of the page described in the body tag. One amongst the major tags and codes or programming are the meta tags. The meta tags give the basic information of the webpage to browsers, search engines and other related.

There are various types of meta tags like:

  • title tag
  • keywords tag
  • description tag
  • ownership tag
  • http-equiv
  • and more...

Out of them all, title is the most important meta tag with respect to SEO plus also designing as it shows up on the top of the browser window.

The keywords tag is used to define the various tags that page is specially consitituted for, or the web designer thinks, is suited for.

Description tag give the summary of the page and so on.

With respect to SEO, the SEO companies concentrate mainly on the first 3 tags shown above for better search engine rankings.

Search Engine Optimization or SEO

To optimize/ improve a web page or a website in such a way that it ranks up high in search engine ranking pages of the various search engine results it referred to as search engine optimization or commonly called as SEO.

There are various techniques of SEO which are deployed to make a website more search engine friendly and get that site up in search results. Under SEO you do various things like meta tags enhansements, content writing, image tag optimization, linking your website from other websites and so on. SEO is segregated generally in 2 parts, i.e. On Page SEO and Off Page SEO.

On Page SEO:
Various techniques which are deployed on the website or web page to increase its search engine ranking are called as On Page SEO. The major types of On page SEO are:

  • Meta Tag writing and optimization: This includes the title tag, description tag, keywords tag and so on.
  • Content Writing: One of the most important factors of SEO is content writing. It is very important to write a proper and unique content for your website relevant to what your website is for.
  • Proper positioning of text and keywords.
  • Adequate repitition of Keywords.
  • Image tag and video tags optimization and so on.

Off Page SEO:
Under this sector the general technique applied to optimize the website for search engines is link building.

  • The links to your websites should be from good resources
  • The backlinks should be dofollow and that count in the eyes of search engines from the indexed pages.
  • Pointing links to the most relevant page is important.
  • The anchor text and title tags on the links on other websites plays a very important part for ranking the website or different web pages with respect to the different keywords.

A good SEO company will always use the white hat SEO methods to give you a real advantage over the other methods to genuinely rank you up in SERPs.


The links(hyperlinks) that point to your website or any web page of your website are reffered to as in coming links to your website. Now search engines look for links going to your website. These links are considered as votes to your website and better the web page linking to you, more if the value of that link. There are various incoming links to your website from various web pages but all of them are counted at all. So all the links that are counted are refered to as backlinks.

Backlinks are of 2 main types. Do follow and no follow.

The backlinks which are put with a tag or rel=dofollow give a definite backlink to your website provided the page they are put on are indexed by the website in question. And the ones which are with the tag rel=nofollow are the ones which donot give a vote to your website even if they are indexed.

Canonical Issue

At times it happens that your have a complex directory structure in your website, mostly done through automated page scripts, then there are more than one web path or URL created for the same webpage. Now that is a canonical issue. The search engines could penalize you for the same. This could also be considered as content duplication.

Thus with regards to SEO, it is important that you donot have any canonical issue on your website.

A common example is the www or non www version of your website where you get the same webpage however with different URLs. And thus under this canonicalization process Google picks up the most famous version of the competing URLs.

One of the ways to avoid this is to use the favoured URL to refer to that path on your website and throughout and it will help Google to do canonicalization accordingly. You can use 301 redirects also to avoid such issues.


HTML is the abreviation to Hyper Text Markup Language or to say a text in the hyper form that adapts color, font, size change etc plus incorporates the various web elements like image, video, sound, link etc in a webpage.

HTML is the most basic form of programing language which is easily learnable and helps creating simple website with its use. With its upgrade in versions in time, HTML has become more versatile and adapted the dynamic or DHTML format too. If you has a knowledge of HTML you can easily build up a webpage and then interlinking a couple of similar webpages, it will become a website.

The most basic programming language for creating a web page is HTML. In the beginnign it was nothing else but just text written with a few tags around to decorate them or to help navigate around with the hyper links. with more simple additions there were Meta tags added to it in the head section, that gave an additional information about the page at the back end or to the browser. then an addition of tags in the body section to include various types of web elements like the images and more. Further a simple text written at the source code with various font tags around could change the style of the text in the front like its color, size, italics etc.

Then with coming times HTML started evolving more and more to incorporate more web elements like video, music, applets and more and different evolved versions of html like PHP, ASP, JSP etc starting making html pages more verstaile with the programming power and functionalities.

Even today after so much evolution, the most basic and powerful and easily acceptable launguage for all major search engines is HTML and that is the reason why SEO companies prefer making the website in pure and raw HTML page where ever possible.

The html webpage is segregated in 2 sections, head and body. Under the head tag, you put the meta tags or the style reference or the scripting informations.

Under the body tag lies the actual web page program lines depicting the text and various elements like images, video etc and the styling and positioning of the same.

XML is the upgraded version of the same which is Extensible Markup Language.


There are 2 versions of sitemaps:

1. For human users: When websites are complex and they have too many pages a sitemap is generally created on the website in a graphical or other form showing all links in a directory structure way giving a clear idea to the user as to what all is served on the website and if he wishes to go directly to any particular section or page. And

2. For search engine robots: Robots craw the website from link to link and at times they miss some or maybe there are broken links or there are a few pages on the website which are not linked to any other page and the SEO company or the client want the robots to index those pages also. Sitemaps is the simplest answers. They can be presented in both simple txt or xml format with more features.

Anchor Text

To understand the term anchor text, you need to have a little knowledge about html. In order to show you a web page in a web browser, the most basic form of programming language written at the source is referred to as 'html'.

In that language, when you wish to give a link to a particular page or a nodal point, either on the same or any other web page, you have to give a hyperlink to that page. A hyperlink is give like below:

<a href="page2.html">click to go to page 2</a>

Now the text in between the <a> tag is referred to as the anchor text. Anchor text plays a great role in SEO and it is also suggested that a very careful use of the same should be done in order to avoid the penalization of the website in the eyes of search engines.

Description Meta Tag

After the title meta tag, Description meta tag is the second most important meta tag with respect to SEO. Just like the Title tag, description meta tag is also put under the head tag in the html or other types of web pages. How to put a description meta tag?

<meta name="description" content="The page explains the description meta tag importance and how it is used. Description tag is of great importance to SEO and it describes the mage in more detail than the title." />

It is important that one should carefully write the description tag of the page and avoid over stuffing of keywords of target as most SEO companies do. The description generally has 2-3 lines of description. The description tag also shows up on the search engine rankings like below

Meta tag Description for SEO Companies
The page explains the description meta tag importance and how it is used. Description tag is of great importance to SEO and it describes the mage in more detail than the title.

In the above search result example, the second and third line depict the description tag of a html or related page.


Title Meta Tag

Out of all the meta tags, title tag is the most important meta tag. A Title tag is put under the head tag in the html or other types of web pages. How to put a title tag.

<title>My Web Page for SEO Company</title>

It is important that one should carefully write the title tag of the page as this is the first aspect that most search engines consider. The Title tells the main heading of the page and what the page is about to the search engine. For SEO people, it is important to put in the main keywords in the title tag too.

The words put in the title tag are displayed in the first line of the search results in most search engines per website like an example below:

My Web Page for SEO Company
This page is a personal blog for the SEO company we have established in Delhi. Our company provides Best SEO services and a host of other related services like web designing, development, content management services and more.

In the above search result example, the first line in bold is the title of the web page which is used in the title meta tag of the webpage.


Landing Page Optimization (LPO)

When an a good SEO company does SEO of your website, it not only optimizes the homepage but also all other pages and gives power to other main pages of your website respectively in different levels.

Thus when users search for a particular keyword on a search engine and that takes the user to the most appropriate webpage of your website is landing page optimization of your website. Most rightfully so, as for example if a person searches for skirts and your website provides thousands of items and indexes of all, it is will better that your SEO company makes the user land on the index page of skirts and not tops or cushion covers or even the homepage from where the user has to search again and reach through to your main webpage.


On Page Optimization

As the name suggests, On Page optimization or SEO is all the techniques and methods which are applied on the website you wish to optimize. Say for example, if you wish to optimize abc.com, the various coding, content writing, image additions, video and other web elements you add to that website, all come under on page optimization. That further and simply implies that if you have the website's ftp address or a way to do change the website on the server, only then you can do on page SEO. If you do not have the access to the website server/ ftp details, you cannot do onpage SEO.

That further implies that all other activities that you deploy outside the website to raise the website's rank on the search engine rankings, is off page optimization.

The various on-pase optimization technique include:

  1. Meta Tag optimization
  2. Image Optimization
  3. Keyword inclusion including the keyword density
  4. Quality content
  5. Title tag and alt tags

and many many more.


Link Building

You must have heard or SEO companies talking about the link building process or offering only link building services. In SEO when you have done all most of the onpage optimization techniques, you start building up links that point to your website from other websites. These are called as backlinks.

Backlinks are reffered to as votes to your website and are very important to rank your website high in search engine ranking pages. Thus, under the link building process, the SEO companies build up lots of quality and quantity links to your website.

The higher the value of a link, higher is the vote to your website. .edu and .gov are a good resource of high quality links.

Other areas where the SEO companies get you backlinks from are:

  • Through link exchange with other websites
  • One way links from other sites
  • Directory submissions
  • Article Submissions
  • Forum Submissions
  • Blog Submissions

All above have further a wide range of resources within to be explored and expertise required to get links. Plus there are many other aspects to be considered while the SEO companies get backlinks from different sites.

Pay Per Click or PPC

Most search engines and other websites run advertising programs on their website or through other medium through feeds like adsense to generate revenue from their websites. Under this process they put advertisements on their websites and when a user clicks on those ads, they pay the ad hosting sites a cost per click.

Hence you can opt to put your advertisements on these ad giving websites and pay them for as many clicks happen to on their websites on your advertisement. As many clicks on the ad, as much you pay. You pay per click.

Though this mode of compaigning is very quick and gives result instantaneously, yet there are said to be frauds associated with these camplains. When you opt for pay per click campaigns, there are either fraud click amount generation or clicks generated by automated computer programs or even clicks generated by fraudsters or other competitors which are not actual and genuine buyers.




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